Types of Fraud
Under-the-table payments, or black economy payments, are a method of paying workers off the books; that is, without keeping a record that the worker received payment.
It is attractive to workers who do not want their wages garnished by tax liabilities or liens, and to employers who do not want to pay payroll taxes or other employee benefits.
It is also fraud, and the EDD and IRS keep a close eye on businesses where the reported number of employees and reported operations do not add up.
Rate manipulation is a tax evasion scheme whereby an employer manipulates their UI payroll tax rate to lower the rate payable. This may occur by transferring the payroll to a new (connected) company in order to benefit from the lower rate that new employers enjoy, or to a subsidiary with a lower tax rate.
Failure to Report Wages
Sometimes an employer may operate a dual system, where they report some of the wages paid to a worker, but fail to report others — for example, overtime monies paid in cash.
If an employer has knowingly falsified a return to show a lower liability than would otherwise be due, it will be difficult to argue that there was an honest mistake made.
Some employers misclassify their workers as independent contractors in order to avoid their obligations in regard to payroll taxes and other employee benefits and protections. Sometimes this arises from a legitimate misunderstanding of what characterizes an employee and on other occasions it is deliberate.
Where payments are merely late, fines are calculated on the basis of time passed. The penalty is two percent for deposits made up to five days late; five percent of deposits made six to 15 days late and 10 percent for deposits made 16 or more days late.
If the IRS issues a notice asking for the tax and it remains unpaid at 10 days after receipt, a 15 percent penalty is added. Fines can begin to build up very quickly, and an employer who delayed paying due to cash flow issues may find themselves in real financial trouble.
Where fraud has occurred, whether by misclassifying employees or not reporting them at all, there are a number of additional penalties that can be levied at both the federal and state level.
Federal tax penalties include a requirement for the employer to pay all of the employee’s unpaid tax liabilities, notwithstanding that these would normally have been the employee’s responsibility.
Employers may also be fined $5,000 per misclassified employee, plus 1.5 percent of the employee’s federal income tax liability, plus 20 percent of the employee’s Social Security tax withholdings.
At the state level, employers can be fined an additional amount between $5,000 and $15,000. If a pattern of deliberate misclassification is found, those amounts increase to $10,000 and $25,000. Employers may request a reduction in penalties if they can prove that there was a genuine mistake.
If employers have failed to keep records and/or issue itemized wage statements, these are additional breaches which carry their own lump sum penalties.
If a worker is injured during the course of employment and the nature of the payroll tax fraud is such that workers’ compensation insurance is not available, the employer may be personally liable for the costs that would ordinarily be covered by that insurance.
Where a worker has been the victim of unfair business practices, such as dismissal without appropriate notice or the denial of overtime, there may be a further exposure for unfair business practices.
The EDD has considerable powers in recouping the outstanding liabilities. They may seize personal assets, including your home, in order to satisfy the debt. Filing for bankruptcy will not discharge the liability.
Lastly, if the payroll tax fraud is found to amount to criminal behavior, you may face a jail term.
Unpaid payroll taxes are one of the most common problems faced by employers. Unfortunately, they are also taken very seriously by the EDD and the IRS. No matter whether you are feeling the pinch from other creditors, or are just too snowed under to make sure your recordkeeping is up-to-date, payroll tax must be a priority within your business.
If you are already in trouble with the EDD or simply unsure whether you are meeting your obligations properly, call me and I can help you sort out the problems before they start to snowball and threaten your business. It is worth the time to at least get an opinion.
My firm, Brotman Law, is in the business of defending small business clients in payroll tax audits. We will carefully review your situation and build the best defense possible to minimize the penalties. We are talking about thousands of dollars that could be in jeopardy here, so schedule a consultation with me to review your options.